Vinegar can kill bed bugs if it comes into direct contact with them and it may help repel them from areas where it is sprayed. However, vinegar cannot be your only defense against bedbugs. For one, vinegar only works if you can see the bugs, and often they will hide or even just be too small to see easily. Second, vinegar will not kill bedbug eggs, which means that vinegar alone will never stop an infestation. Vinegar also needs to be reapplied frequently to have any effectiveness.
Thus, although these insects usually cause mild cutaneous reactions, more severe responses, including anaphylaxis, may occur.  Bullae may be noted. Skin responses at bite sites may evolve from immediate, pruritic, edematous macules into bullae within 24 hours. Histopathologically, an urticarial-like reaction can develop into a leukocytoclastic vasculitis, sometimes with a destructive, necrotizing, eosinophil-rich vasculitis with prominent infiltration of CD68+ histiocytes and collagen necrobiosis.
Pesticides should always be used with caution, and especially when used indoors. Never use a pesticide for bed bugs that does not bear clear directions stating that it can be used indoors. Never spray yourself, children or pets with a pesticide. And follow the label safety directions carefully. Pesticide labels contain directionsfor use that are not merely suggestions. Failure to follow directions exactly is illegal and can result in poor control and possible harm to yourself and family. For more information, see the EPA Consumer Alert on pesticides and bed bugs.
Bed bugs have six life stages from eggs to adulthood. The adults and nymphs of the pests could stay out of sight for months after feeding so they are quite difficult to detect. However, the eggs are much harder to locate. Female bed bugs usually hide them in dark and deep cracks and crevices. The fact that they are very small, makes it even harder to search for them. So, if you need to implement a keen inspection when looking for adult bed bugs, you need to be more canny when looking for their eggs.
Encase Mattresses and use bed bug interceptor traps on bed frames. After everything is put back and all pesticides are dried, vacuum the area again to remove any dead or dying bedbugs and to pick up any spilled dust or pesticide. Be sure to throw the vacuum cleaner bag away outdoors. A thorough treatment is essential to achieve adequate control. It is usually desirable to apply insecticides for bed bugs early in the day, so that insecticide spray residues will have several hours to dry, or dusts will have time to settle, before the room will be used again for sleeping. As a safety consideration it is particularly important to dry and cover mattresses completely before they are reused. A mattress encasement such as The Elite Zippered Mattress and Boxspring Encasement should be used to cover and conceal the mattress and the boxsprings. It is important to use a quality zippered encasement (cover) with a special zipper closure to make sure that bedbugs do not crawl out of the zipper opening.
First up are the contact sprays, like STERI-FAB and JT Eaton Kills Bed Bugs. These will kill quickly, but evaporate shortly after, leaving no long-lasting protection. Spray along baseboards, below drawers and on drawer slides, behind cabinets, and behind night stands. Follow up with a residual spray, such as Bedlam Plus and JT Eaton Kills Bed Bugs Plus. Residual sprays will offer long-lasting protection against bed bugs and hatchlings. Bedlam Plus is ideal for cracks and crevices throughout the room, while JT Eaton Plus can be used below the cushions and bases of sofas, chairs, edges of carpets and other fabric items.
Waking up with bites might be the first indicator that you have a bed bug problem. Their bites are often arranged in lines or clusters on the face, neck, arms or hands. Where there are bed bugs in large numbers, you might smell a sweet, musty odor (from the bugs’ scent glands) or see rust-colored spots on your bedding or mattress caused by bed bug blood or excrement. If you look closely, you might see adult bed bugs themselves, usually in mattress folds or seams or on the wall behind the headboard. Bed bugs prefer to stay close to their food source and are typically found hiding out within 1 to 5 ft of infested beds or furniture.
Insect bites, including those from the bedbug, have been proposed as a factor contributing to the formation of a cutaneous reaction termed papular urticaria. Patients with papular urticaria have been shown to demonstrate immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies to bedbug (C lectularius) antigens.  Thus, IgG against C lectularius, Cimex pipiens, and Pulex irritans in patients with papular urticaria may contribute the pathogenesis of this condition.
Some oils like tea tree and neem oil can't kill bedbugs, but they work well to repel them. Tea tree oil is an extract from the Melaleuca alternifolia plant—it can cause various health problems with pet birds, cats, and small dogs. If there are pets in the house, look for other safer choices. If you use the oil, apply it in small quantities to the skin to repel bed bugs. Since bed bugs are active at night, apply it before bedtime.
Bed bugs are small, flat insects that feed on our blood, typically at night, while we are sleeping. Adult bed bugs are about 1/4 of an inch long, have flat, rusty-red-colored oval bodies, and look like an apple seed. They feed for about 3-10 minutes and their bodies swell and become bright red. During the bed bug life cycle, a female can lay 200-400 eggs depending on food supply and temperature. Bed bugs don't fly, but can quickly walk across floors, walls, and other surfaces.
1. Mattress Safe Encasements: Mattress Safe Products are bed encasements to place over your mattress or boxspring so you don't have to throw them away. They are bedbug certified. If using a labeled insecticide on the mattress or boxspring first, apply on mattress or box springs then zip it up. It has a patented hook to keep the bed bugs inside the encasement so they cannot escape. Keep the encasement in place for one year (due to bed bug life cycles).
The decline of bed bug populations in the 20th century is often credited to potent pesticides that had not previously been widely available. Other contributing factors that are less frequently mentioned in news reports are increased public awareness and slum clearance programs that combined pesticide use with steam disinfection, relocation of slum dwellers to new housing, and in some cases also follow-up inspections for several months after relocated tenants moved into their new housing.
Use precautions in your own home. Keep the plastic covering that comes on your mattress when purchased new. Purchase special bedbug covers for you mattress and box spring. Make sure that they are quality ones with heavy duty zippers and constructed with special fabric that doesn't rip easily. Don't buy the cheap versions which are not thick enough to prevent the bedbugs from sticking their feeding tubes into the skin through the cover.
While most of the bed bugs were wiped out by the chemicals, three groups continued to thrive after being treated with chlorfenapyr, and five groups were still kicking after being treated with bifenthrin. That means that while some bed bugs will respond to these chemicals, others won't—and it's likely that more and more bugs will become resistant over time.
Susceptibility to arthropod bites depends on many external factors, such as occupation, conditions of employment, cohabitation with a variety of domestic animals, housing, climate, and clothing. An arthropod is usually attracted to its host by body heat, carbon dioxide in exhaled air, vibration, human sweat, and/or odor. The Cimex (bedbug) genus attacks both mammals and birds. C hemipterus (the tropical bedbug) bites mostly humans and is found in warm climates, whereas C lectularius (the common bedbug) also attacks bats and domestic animals, such as chickens.
Itchy swollen bites may be the first sign of a bed bug problem. However, these itchy bites can take as long as 14 days to develop in some people, so it's important to look for other clues if you are concerned about an infestation. Bed bugs typically infest mattresses, box springs, bed frames, and couches. You may be able to find them hiding within the cracks and crevices of beds, furniture, floors, and walls. Bed bugs often leave evidence of small dark stains (fecal droppings) and rusty red spots (bloodstains) on bedding sheets, mattresses, and other areas they hide in or travel along. Heavy bed bug infestations can cause a sweet, musty smell.