Individual responses to bites vary, ranging from no visible effect (in about 20–70%), to small macular spots, to prominent wheals and bullae formations along with intense itching that may last several days. The bites often occur in a line. A central spot of bleeding may also occur due to the release of anticoagulants in the bug's saliva.
When the controversial pesticide DDT was banned in 1972, most bed bugs were already resistant to it, Schal says, and today's populations are even more widely resistant thanks to the use of a new class of pesticides. Pyrethroids, the main class of pesticides used against bedbugs today, targets sodium channels in bedbug cells, just like DDT. Consequently, as bedbugs develop resistance to pyrethroids, they also become cross-resistant to DDT.
Start in the corners and along edges of an open wall. With the card, see if you can dig things out of the cracks and crevices. Work your way along the cracks and crevices. For example, if you are checking a baseboard along the floor, see if you can get the card between the baseboard and the floor, as well as the top of the baseboard and the wall. If you have a bare tile or wood floor, consider using a damp cloth or map to wipe the floor. Don’t use too much water as floors can be slippery. Look for anything moving after you wipe the floor. If you have carpeted areas vacuum the clean area. See Vacuuming Items to Capture Bed Bugs. Don’t forget to check pictures and other items on this wall.
Bed bugs tend to live in clusters similar to German cockroaches. Adult bed bugs generally travel 15 to 20 feet, or less, from their harborage sites. Common bed bugs feed on human blood just below the surface of the skin with their piercing-sucking mouthparts. Those bitten by a bed bug may develop small, white to red, hard welts at the bite site. These bites itch intensely.
Instead, get written quotes from three licensed exterminators detailing their course of action, including pesticides, traps, and/or heat treatments they'll use and how and where they'll use them. "You should ask lots of questions to the companies you interview, because a good company will answer them and will never pressure you to make an appointment," says Dunham.
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In the case of beds, a more economical option is to encase both the mattress and box spring in a protective cover like those used for allergy relief. Encasements specifically designed to help protect against bed bugs are available through retail or pest control firms. Higher quality ones tend to be more durable and comfortable to sleep on. Once the encasement is installed and zipped shut, any bugs which happen to be inside are entombed and eventually will die. Encasements also help protect newly purchased beds, and make it easier to spot and destroy any bugs residing on the outer surface during subsequent examination. Encasements will not, however, keep bed bugs from crawling onto a bed and biting a sleeping person.